|I. Translate the following proper nouns, abbreviations and technical terms into Chinese.
Americans have a sense of space, not of place. Go to an American home in exurbia (城市远郊), and almost the first thing you do is drift toward the picture window. How curious that the first compliment you pay your host inside his house is to say how lovely it is outside his house! He is pleased that you should admire his vistas. The distant horizon is not merely a line separating earth from sky, it is a symbol of the future. The American is not rooted in his place, however lovely: his eyes are drawn by the expanding space to a point on the horizon, which is his future.
|By contrast, consider the traditional Chinese home. Blank walls enclose it. Outside is a courtyard with perhaps a miniature garden around a corner. Once inside his private compound you are wrapped in an ambiance of calm beauty, an ordered world of buildings, pavement, rock, and decorative vegetation. But you have no distant view: nowhere does space open out before you, the only open space is the sky above. The Chinese is rooted in his place.
The Chinese tie to place is deeply felt. Wanderlust (漫游癖) is an alien sentiment. The Taoist classic Tao Te Ching captures the ideal of rootedness in place with these words: “Though there may be another country in the neighborhood so close that they are within sight of each other and the crowing of cocks and barking of dogs in one place can be heard in the other, yet there is no traffic between them; and throughout their lives the two peoples have nothing to do with each other.” In theory if not in practice, farmers have ranked high in Chinese society. The reason is not only that they are engaged in a “root” industry of producing food but that, unlike pecuniary merchants, they are tied to the land and do not abandon their country when it is in danger.
IV. Translate the following Chinese into English. (60 scores)
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